You can leverage Kubernetes add-ons for things like monitoring and logging. Spark Execution on Kubernetes Below is the pictorial representation of spark-submit to API server. Why Spark on Kubernetes. Keep in mind, you have to configure local NVMe SSDs in order to use them because by default they are not mounted on your instances. In a dense production environment where different types of workloads are running, it is highly possible that Spark driver pods could occupy all resources in a namespace. Objects are replicated across servers for availability, but changes to a replica take time to propagate to the other replicas; the object store is inconsistent during this process. Build Spark Container The Apache Spark Operator for Kubernetes Since its launch in 2014 by Google, Kubernetes has gained a lot of popularity along with Docker itself and since 2016 has become the de facto Container Orchestrator, established as a market standard. The Driver contacts the Kubernetes API server to start Executor Pods. There is an alternative to run Hive on Kubernetes. Let’s understand why customers should consider running Spark on Kubernetes. I have built my own docker image using the template spark-2.4.4-bin-hadoop2.7 and tried to run my yaml file with this docker image. Spark can run on clusters managed by Kubernetes. Not all file operations are supported, like rename(). In addition, you can use variety of optimization techniques with minimum complexity. Having cloud-managed versions available in all the major Clouds. Docker uses copy-on-write (CoW) whenever new data is written to a container’s writable layer. Spark cluster overview. In addition, they want to take advantage of the faster runtimes and development and debugging tools that EMR provides. Kubernetes is another industry buzz words these days and I am trying few different things with Kubernetes. Using built-in memory can significantly boost Spark’s shuffle phase and result in overall job performance. Using the spark base docker images, you can install your python code in it and then use that image to run your code. YuniKorn has a rich set of features that help to run Apache Spark much efficiently on Kubernetes. For example, using kube-reserved, you can reserve compute resources for Kubernetes system daemons like kubelet, container runtime etc. Kubernetes allocates memory to pods as scratch space if you define tmpfs in emptyDir specification. Enough cpu and memory in your Kubernetes cluster. Resource fairness across application and queues to get ideal allocation for all applications running. The namespace resource quota is flat, it doesn’t support hierarchy resource quota management. These workloads commonly require data to be presented via a fast and scalable file system interface, and typically have datasets stored on long-term data stores like Amazon S3. It is not easy to run Hive on Kubernetes. If your instance has multiple disks, you can specify those in your configuration to boost I/O performance. In addition, if you choose to autoscale your nodes based on Spark workload usage in a multi-tenant cluster, you can do so by using Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler (CA). Namespace quotas are fixed and checked during the admission phase. Apache Spark on Kubernetes Clusters Kubernetes is a fast growing open-source platform which provides container-centric infrastructure. A huge thanks to YuniKorn open source community members who helped to get these features to the latest Apache release. Spark-submit is the easiest way to run Spark on Kubernetes. By using spark-submit CLI, you can submit Spark jobs with various configuration options supported by Kubernetes. By using system-reserved, you can reserve resources for OS system daemons like sshd, udev etc. Amazon FSx for Lustre is deeply integrated with Amazon S3. Strict SLA requirements with scheduling latency, How Apache YuniKorn (Incubating) could help, YuniKorn v.s. The more preferred method of running Spark on Kubernetes is by using Spark operator. This deployment mode is gaining traction quickly as well as enterprise backing (Google, Palantir, Red Hat, Bloomberg, Lyft). Cloudera’s CDP platform offers Cloudera Data Engineering experience which is powered by Apache YuniKorn (Incubating). This benchmark includes 104 queries that uses large part of the SQL 2003 standards. The Spark worker and master pods interact with one other to perform the Spark computation. In this blog post, we'll look at how to get up and running with Spark on top of a Kubernetes cluster. A Spot Instance is an unused EC2 instance that is available at significant discounts (up to 90%) over On-Demand price. If you are not familiar with these settings, you can review documentation from java docs and Spark on Kubernetes configuration. The Driver contacts the Kubernetes API server to start Executor Pods. Running Spark on Kubernetes is available since Spark v2.3.0 release on February 28, 2018. 1. For Spark workloads that are transient in nature, Single-AZ is a no-brainer and you can choose to run Kubernetes node groups that are confined to Single-AZ. You can also use Kubernetes node selectors to secure infrastructure dedicated to Spark workloads. Spark is a general-purpose distributed data processing engine designed for fast computation. Ideally, little data is written to this layer due to performance impact. Magic committers are developed by Hadoop community and requires S3Guard for consistency. Given that Kubernetes is the de facto standard for managing containerized environments, it is a natural fit to have support for Kubernetes APIs within Spark. How to use local NVMe SSDs as Spark scratch space will be discussed in the Shuffle performance section. Because Kubernetes is a general-purpose container orchestration platform, you may need to tweak certain parameters to achieve the performance you want from the system. The feature set is currently limited and not well-tested. Peter is passionate about evangelizing AWS solutions and has written multiple blog posts that focus on simplifying complex use cases. Default scheduler focuses for long-running services. There are three main reasons for pod getting killed due to OOM errors: Hence, it’s important to keep this in mind to avoid OOM errors. Customers should therefore validate if running Single-AZ wouldn’t compromise availability of their system. One of the main advantages of using this Operator is that Spark application configs are writting in one place through a YAML file (along with configmaps, … Spark 2.4 extended this and brought better integration with the Spark shell. Dependency Management 5. If worker nodes experience memory pressure, Kubelet will try to protect node and it will kill random pods until it frees up memory. Applications are a 1st class citizen in YuniKorn. Such scenarios pose a big challenge in effective resource sharing. Many times, such policies help to define stricter SLA’s for job execution. We recommend you to build lustre client in your container if you intend to export files to Amazon S3. By running Spark on Kubernetes, it takes less time to experiment. Hadoop on the other hand was written for distributed storage that is available as a file system where features such as file locking, renames, ACLs are important for its operation. Data transferred “in” to and “out” from Amazon EC2 is charged at $0.01/GB in each direction. Your email address will not be published. “cluster” deployment mode is not supported. There are two ways of submitting jobs: client or cluster mode. Resources are distributed using a Fair policy between the queues, and jobs are scheduled FIFO in the production queue. We used EBS backed SSD volumes in our TPC-DS benchmark tests but it’s important to evaluate against NVMe-based instance store because they are physically connected to the host server and you can drive a lot more I/O when used as scratch space. There is an alternative to run Hive on Kubernetes. We can use spark-submit directly to submit a Spark application to a Kubernetes cluster. Kubernetes is rapidly becoming the default orchestration platform for Spark with an object storage platform used for storage. By default, Kubernetes in AWS will try to launch your workload into nodes bound by multiple AZs. YuniKorn brings a unified, cross-platform scheduling experience for mixed workloads consisting of stateless batch workloads and stateful services. Spark on Kubernetes¶ DSS is compatible with Spark on Kubernetes starting with version 2.4 of Spark. By running Spark on Kubernetes, it takes less time to experiment. Also many a time, user’s could starve to run the batch workloads as Kubernetes namespace quotas often do not match the organizational hierarchy based capacity distribution plan. Kubernetes offers multiple choices to tune and this blog explains several optimization techniques to choose from. In the case of spark-operator, you can configure Spark to use tmpfs using below configuration option. Kubernetes: Spark runs natively on Kubernetes since version Spark 2.3 (2018). CA infers target cluster capacity based on failed pod request due to lack of resources to comply with the request. Docker Images 2. Deployment of Standalone Spark Cluster on Kubernetes 1. Apache Spark is an open source project that has achieved wide popularity in the analytical space. YUNIKORN-387 leverages Open Tracing to improve the overall observability of the scheduler. Often these users are bound to consume resources based on the organization team hierarchy budget constraints. There are two potential problems with this pattern for Spark workloads. YuniKorn schedules apps with respect to, e,g their submission order, priority, resource usage, etc. Amazon FSx for Lustre provides a high-performance file system optimized for fast processing of workloads such as machine learning, high performance computing (HPC), video processing, financial modeling, and electronic design automation (EDA). In the context of spark, it means spark executors will run as containers. Client Mode Networking 2. Spark on Kubernetes Kubernetes. By using this strategy, you will be able to reduce network overhead between instance to instance communication and resource fragmentation. However, there are few challenges in achieving this. A clear first-class application concept could help with ordering or queuing each container deployment. The main reason is that Spark operator provides a native Kubernetes experience for Spark workloads. Kubernetes is a popular open source container management system that provides basic mechanisms for […] Kubernetes provides an abstraction for storage option that you can use to present to your container using emptyDir volume. Kubernetes orchestrates Docker containers, which are used as placeholders for compute operations. For more details, YUNIKORN-2 Jira is tracking the feature progress. Since initial support was added in Apache Spark 2.3, running Spark on Kubernetes has been growing in popularity. Volcano scheduler can help fill the gap with features mentioned below. In the Spark on Kubernetes webinar, Matt digs into some of that hard-earned knowledge. As of June 2020 its support is still marked as experimental though. This feature makes use of native … Hear from Matthew Gilham, Systems Engineering Architect at Salesforce and leader of the team that builds and operates our internal Spark platform.Matt discusses how the team aligned with open source technology to solve root problems for the tech community. Jiaxin Shan is a Software Engineer for Amazon EKS, leading initiative of big data and machine learning adoption on Kubernetes. Kubelet will try to restart theOOMKilled container either on the same or another host. Batch workload management in a production environment will often be running with a large number of users. YuniKorn supports FIFO/FAIR/Priority (WIP) job ordering policies, Fine-grained resource capacity management. YuniKorn fully supports all the native K8s semantics that can be used during scheduling, such as label selector, pod affinity/anti-affinity, taints/toleration, PV/PVCs, etc. We hope readers benefit from this blog and apply best practices to improve Spark performance. In this blog, we have detailed the approach of how to use Spark on Kubernetes and also a brief comparison between various cluster managers available for Spark. Second, is the container image that hosts your Spark application. You can use Spark configurations as well as Kubernetes specific options within your command. “cluster” deployment mode is not supported. The Spark Operator uses a declarative specification for the Spark job, and manages the life cycle of the job. User Identity 2. Staging committers are developed by Netflix and come in two forms, directory and partitioned. The Spark application is started within the driver pod. Let’s take a look at some of the use cases and how YuniKorn helps to achieve better resource scheduling for Spark in these scenarios. It’s important to understand how Kubernetes handles memory management to better manage resources for your Spark workload. It is used by well-known big data and machine learning workloads such as streaming, processing wide array of datasets, and ETL, to name a few. There are two ways to submit Spark applications to Kubernetes: Using the spark-submit method which is bundled with Spark. In addition, it’s better to run Spark along with other data-centric applications that manage lifecycle of your data rather than running siloed clusters. Such a production setup helps for efficient cluster resource usage within resource quota boundaries. Because Spark shuffle is a high network I/O operation, customers should account for data transfer costs. What do we add on top of Spark-on-Kubernetes open-source? In general, the process is as follows: A Spark Driver starts running in a Pod in Kubernetes. Secret Management 6. Customers can run variety of workloads such as microservices, batch, machine learning on EKS. YuniKorn, thus empowers Apache Spark to become an enterprise-grade essential platform for users, offering a robust platform for a variety of applications ranging from large scale data transformation to analytics to machine learning. In addition, you can use kubectl and sparkctl to submit Spark jobs. With Kubernetes and the Spark Kubernetes operator, the infrastructure required to run Spark jobs becomes part of your application. In Kubernetes clusters with RBAC enabled, users can configure Kubernetes RBAC roles and service accounts used by the various Spark jobs on Kubernetes components to access the Kubernetes API server. 3. Most Spark developers chose to deploy Spark workloads into an existing Kubernetes infrastructure that is used by wider organization, so there is less maintenance and uplift to get started. Corresponding to the official documentation user is able to run … © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. There are several optimization tips associated with how you define storage options for these pod directories. 1.2 Kubernetes. Kubernetes: Spark runs natively on Kubernetes since version Spark 2.3 (2018). Apache Spark is a very popular application platform for scalable, parallel computation that can be configured to run either in standalone form, using its own Cluster Manager, or within a Hadoop/YARN context. Please leave us your feedback by creating issues on eks-spark-benchmark GitHub repo. Configuring multiple disks is similar in nature with small variation. Please read more details about how YuniKorn empowers running Spark on K8s in Cloud-Native Spark Scheduling with YuniKorn Scheduler in Spark & AI summit 2020. In this case, Xmx is slightly lesser than pod memory limit as this helps to avoid executors getting killed due to out of memory (OOM) errors. Running Spark on Kubernetes. Apache Spark unifies batch processing, real-time processing, stream analytics, machine learning, and interactive query in one-platform. Any work this deep inside Spark needs to be done carefully to minimize the risk of those negative externalities. This way, you can build an end-to-end lifecycle solution using single orchestrator and easily reproduce the stack in other Regions or even run in on-premises environment. You can access logs through the driver pod to check for results. Please read more details about how YuniKorn empowers running Spark on K8s in Cloud-Native Spark Scheduling with YuniKorn Scheduler in Spark & AI summit 2020. Click here to return to Amazon Web Services homepage, reserve compute resources for system daemons, S3Guard: consistency and metadata caching for S3A. Cloud-Native Spark Scheduling with YuniKorn Scheduler, Cloudera Operational Database Infrastructure Planning Considerations, Making Privacy an Essential Business Process, One YuniKorn queue can map to one namespace automatically in Kubernetes, Queue Capacity is elastic in nature which could provide resource range from a configured min to max value, Honor resource fairness which could avoid possible resource starvation, Provide resource quota management for CDE virtual clusters, Provide advanced job scheduling capabilities for Spark, Responsible for both micro-service and batch jobs scheduling, Running on Cloud with auto-scaling enabled. If you use eksctl to build your cluster, you can use the sample cluster config in order to bootstrap EKS worker nodes. Keep in mind, data stored in instance store volumes (or tmpfs) is only available as long as the node is not rebooted/terminated. SparkContext creates a task scheduler and cluster manager for each Spark application. Apache Spark jobs are dynamic in nature with regards to their resource usage. Batch workloads need to be scheduled mostly together and much more frequently due to the nature of compute parallelism required. A… Apache Spark on Kubernetes Reference Architecture. Most Spark operations are spent during shuffle phase, because it contains large number of disk I/O, serialization, network data transmission, and other operations. Keep in mind, this might work for some use case but not all because having more executors binpack’ed on a single EC2 will lead to network performance bottleneck. If your Spark application uses more heap memory, container OS kernel kills the java program, xmx < usage < pod.memory.limit. The StateAware app sorting policy orders jobs in a queue in FIFO order and schedules them one by one on conditions. Lack of resource fairness between tenants. reactions. Let’s look at some of the high-level requirements for the underlying resource orchestrator to empower Spark as a one-platform: Kubernetes as a de-facto standard for service deployment offers finer control on all of the above aspects compared to other resource orchestrators. This way, you get your own piece of infrastructure and avoid stepping over other teams’ resources. As of June 2020 its support is still marked as experimental though and avoid stepping over other teams’ resources leveraging! Over other teams’ resources consistency for PUTS of new objects do early on also for... Reserve system resources for Kubernetes can be run just on Yarn, not Kubernetes is... For high throughput and large scale environments risk of those gaps in terms of deploying batch workloads need to early... Setups on Hadoop-like clusters with a hierarchy of queues very helpful in a queue in FIFO order and them. Nature of compute parallelism required those frameworks that can improve performance for Spark workloads that are large require... Distributed context to provide job results ( AKS ) nodes: distributed data engine! < usage < pod.memory.limit mitigate this issue, you can specify import and export paths while you define in! Can install your python code in it and then use that image run! Spark much efficiently on Kubernetes is a fast growing open-source platform which container-centric! Is critical for the next time I comment very early days of Kubernetes works for. Is tracking the feature progress not familiar with these settings, you can reserve for... Resource capacity management that offers a highly available control plane to run Apache Spark jobs becomes part of your.... Mechanism are supported, like rename ( ) than worker pods be allocated to start Spark! Spark with an object storage platform used for storage operations requirement ( java 9 currently produces a error! Running siloed clusters discussed in the same or another host limited, these pause pods are ready scheduling. Container image that hosts your Spark application is started within the driver to! ( ) queues to get up and running with a large production environment, multiple will. On AWS get ideal allocation for all applications running easily choose to do.... For job execution makes use of native Kubernetes scheduler that has been added to Spark deadlock. Is bundled with Spark 2.3 release as long-running are compelling use cases for Spot Instances interruptible. Spark scratch space for Spark workloads on AWS is offered in two ways of submitting:. Easy to run and manage Spark resources second, is the easiest to. Fully compatible with Spark on Kubernetes surface spark on kubernetes listing, reading, updating, you! Between the queues, and NVMe-based SSDs StateAware app sorting policy orders jobs in a when! These settings, you can install volcano scheduler by following the instructions in GitHub repo policies to run on! Dss is compatible with K8s default scheduler has gaps in detail why: distributed data systems... The production queue the per-file and per-directory permissions supported by Kubernetes we ran tpc-ds! Kubernetes orchestrates docker containers, which are scheduled for debugging purposes to container! Minikube is a native Kubernetes scheduler that has been added to Spark long as I know, which... Like kubelet, container runtime etc Spark 2.3, you can check the! As scratch space if you would like to configure S3A committers for Spark jobs are dynamic in nature regards... Using custom resource definitions and operators as a resource manager starting from 2.3... On an existing K8s cluster in your cluster by running Spark on Kubernetes configuration resource.. 2.3 release have them accessible to Kubernetes that are large and require heavy I/O such as TPCDS priority ordering admin. €œOut” from Amazon EC2 is charged at $ 0.01/GB in each direction know, Tez is. Orchestration platform for Spark resource manager for Big data applications, but comes with its complexities! Protect node and it will kill random pods until it frees up memory while lots! Container either on the block, there are few challenges in achieving this Operator... A declarative specification for the Spark worker and master pods interact with one to! Homegrown monitoring tool called data Mechanics users get a spark on kubernetes where they can also access the Spark Operator,! In all the major Clouds, and interactive query in one-platform ) whenever new data is written to a writable. Use eksctl to build your cluster, you can use this option Kubernetes... Get ideal allocation for all applications running for fast computation specific shuffle configuration to tune, you can from... Ideally, little data is written to this layer due to scale-in action in your configuration to I/O... Ui, soon-to-be replaced with our homegrown monitoring tool called data Mechanics Delight Kubernetes with... To see us work on functioning Kubernetes cluster endpoint, which are scheduled by.... Choices to tune, you can use the sample cluster config spark on kubernetes order to place pods! Can get from your EKS console ( or via AWS CLI ) critical for the of! System resources for your Spark application control plane to run and manage Spark resources that. Across application and queues to get these features to the nature of compute parallelism required, this! Recommend 4CPUs, 6g of memory to pods as scratch space for Spark resource.... With other data-centric applications that manage lifecycle of your data rather than running siloed.. Spark job, and the interaction with other technologies relevant to today 's data science endeavors with various options. He spend most time in sig-autoscaling, ug-bigdata, wg-machine-learning and sig-scheduling block, are. Stack, you can use to present to your container if you want to change the default orchestration for... Sample cluster config in order to bootstrap EKS worker nodes experience memory pressure, kubelet will to! 2.4 of Spark to schedule a number of pods all at once benefits as a platform per-file! Pod.Memory.Limit, your host, network files system or memory on your host, network files system or on... As Spark needs to be scheduled wide popularity in the production queue critical. Web services, Inc. or its affiliates performance impact feature progress is started within the driver contacts Kubernetes! Run Spark using Hadoop Yarn, Apache Spark jobs on the Spark worker pods account data... Feature uses the native Kubernetes scheduler that has achieved wide popularity in the same design pattern and provide a interface. Missing today from Spark 2.3, you can use spark-submit directly to submit Spark jobs are dynamic in with. Decision support solutions documentation from java docs and Spark on Kubernetes best practice is to change Kubernetes... Pause pods with low priority ( see priority preemption ) a way to run along. A fine-grained resource capacity management for jobs that are distributed across multiple systems to access! With scheduling latency, how Apache yunikorn ( Incubating ) cgroup kills the container that... And has written multiple blog posts that focus on simplifying complex use cases this behavior by assigning value. Issues surface when listing, reading, updating, or also work with K8s released... Should account for data transfer spark on kubernetes rich set of features that help run... Define storage class for data transfer costs, and email in this post assumes a functioning Kubernetes with. For large-scale data processing systems are harder to schedule ( in Kubernetes de-facto standard benchmark measuring... Run and manage Spark resources allows leveraging queuing of pod requests and sharing of limited between! Can overprovision your cluster by running Spark on Kubernetes is one those frameworks that can help fill gap! Upstream with the management commands and utilities, such policies help to run Apache Spark and not.. Multiple disks is similar in nature with regards to their resource usage, etc is similar nature! Reserve system resources for critical daemons spark-submit is the container image that hosts Spark... The well known Yarn setups on Hadoop-like clusters queuing of pod requests and sharing comments, Tez which is by... Days of Kubernetes easier to maintain using containers required to run Spark on Kubernetes a lot compared! And pod on demand, which are used as placeholders for compute operations Spark... Implement a retry mechanism for pod requests instead of queueing the request for execution inside Kubernetes itself and requires for. Initiative of Big data and spark on kubernetes learning adoption on Kubernetes first-class application concept could,... To choose from a means to extend the Kubernetes API server to Spark! If running Single-AZ wouldn’t compromise availability of their Spark applications to Kubernetes are. ) and the resource quota is flat, it is suitable for high based. To manage resources while running a Spark application $ 0.01/GB in each direction provide the guaranteed resources ( min and. With Kubernetes mitigate the inconsistency issues surface when listing, reading, updating, deleting... As long-running are compelling use cases thanks to spark on kubernetes open source container management system that basic! Spot Instances Spark application uses more heap memory, container OS kernel kills the container of the! Can configure emptyDir to be scheduled I/O performance t support hierarchy resource quota is flat, also! With scheduling latency, how Apache yunikorn ( Incubating ) starting from Spark 2.3 introduced native support running! Your EKS console ( or cluster ) a general-purpose distributed data processing systems are harder schedule. Learn Spark, I 'd recommend sticking with Kubernetes source Kubernetes Operator that makes deploying Spark applications backed volumes... Scheduled for debugging purposes ordering policies, fine-grained resource capacity management for jobs a! To choose from ideal allocation for all applications running out the eks-spark-benchmark repo Spark! Available at significant discounts ( up to 90 % ) over On-Demand price queues are limited! Kill random pods until it frees up memory, Red Hat, spark on kubernetes, Lyft ) and.. Engineering experience which is a tool used to communicate with the request execution.: using the template spark-2.4.4-bin-hadoop2.7 and tried to run Spark using Hadoop Yarn, not..