Respondents were asked to indicate their views to find out whether there has been implementation of climate change adaptation activities by smallholder farmers or not. This is because the countries and their people are characterized by low adaptive capacity to climate change due to limited financial resources and minimal access to technology (Mannke, 2010; AMCEN, 2011; Maponya and Mpandeli, 2012). IPCC (2013), “Climate change 2013: the physical science basis”, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, p. 1535. These small farms are rain fed and are vulnerable to climate change and variability extremes such as droughts. The model has got predictive efficiency of 82.9%, while 60% of variance in a dependent variable was explained by the model (Nagelkerke R2 value is 60%). The international development agency’s report, “The Rain Doesn’t Come on Time Anymore: Poverty, Vulnerability, and Climate Variability in Ethiopia,” was launched at a special Earth Day celebration organized by the Climate Change Forum-Ethiopia in collaboration with other environmental organizations. In Ethiopia, most studies on the effects of climate change on water resources focus on the Nile basin. Semi-structured checklists on adaptation strategies to climate change and their major determinants were developed to guide the discussions. Most of the strategies identified by the respondents target physical activities as they are meant for increasing crop production. Maponya, P. and Mpandeli, S. (2012), “Climate change and agricultural production in South Africa: impacts and adaptation options”. Thus, the study revealed that access to the expertise of agricultural extension workers significantly determines the level of climate change adaptation activities of smallholder farmers (Table 5). This implies that most of the rural farming communities do not make use of the information provided by the stations which adversely affects them to carry out adaptation practices. The data was collected between February and April 2016 during the weekdays and the weekends as the smallholder farmers are not busy during that specified season. The majority of these families work as a team and they exchange ideas all the time. But restoration has been underway for decades, with most restoration projects focusing on reducing soil erosion and runoff, the study shows. Research reports No.4, Addis Ababa. 12 No. With respect to age, indicated in Table 3, the majority of the respondents (45.9%) were between 41–50 years, while the respondents whose age group was 31–40 years constituted about 31.1%. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4717, Smallholder farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate variability and climate change in Doba district, West Harare, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency, Climate change and agriculture paper: perception of and adaptation to climate change by farmers in the Nile basin of Ethiopia, Analysis of the determinants of farmers' choice of adaptation methods and perceptions of climate change in the Nile basin of Ethiopia, International Food Policy Research Institute, Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Production in the Nile Basin, Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies, Agricultural adaptation to climate change: insights from a farming community in Sri Lanka, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, The challenge of climate change adaptation: learning from national planning efforts in Britain, China, and the USA, Journal of Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, Adama district physical and socioeconomic profile, Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons, Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science and Springer, Farm level adaptation to climate change: the case of farmer’s in the Ethiopian highlands, Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies for New Zealand`S built environment, Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: multinomial choice analysis, Changing climate adaptation strategies of Boran Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia, Climate change 2013: the physical science basis, Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Some of the key livelihood activities practiced in the district are agriculture, industry and construction, agriculture being the domination activity. Scientific communities agree that the change in climate is mainly attributed to anthropogenic factors (Winkler, 2010; Ofuoku, 2011; IPCC, 2014b). The duration of the stay in study area has significant implications in identifying historical profile of climate change and its adaptation practices. To maintain the reliability and validity, the instruments have been reviewed by experts of the field. Belay, A., Recha, J.W., Woldeamanuel, T. and Morton, J.F. Oswald, M. and McNeil, S. (2013), “Climate change adaptation practices: a pilot study evaluating transportation agency progress”, The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, Vol. Ethiopia planted more than 353 million trees in 12 hours on Monday, which officials believe is a world record. The analysis was based on the records of observed meteorological data and the future projected from the CMIP5 model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. (2013), “Understanding the process of adaptation to climate change by small-holder farmers: the case of East Hararghe zone, Ethiopia”, Agricultural and Food Economics, Vol. (Water Utilization in Agriculture: Water Research Commission, Pretoria. Rural livelihood systems – crop cultivation, pastoralism, and agro-pastoralism – … The interviews were conducted with elderly farmers, agricultural extension workers and experts at kebele district, zonal and regional levels. It is widely accepted among scientists and communities of practice that climate change rigorously influences the major environmental components that are directly related to the well-being of the world nations. In other words, smallholder farmers who have access to professional advice from extension workers are more likely to practice climate change adaptation strategies compared to those who do not get access to professional advice. Relating agricultural practices with qualification of farmers, Asfaw and Admassie (2004) state that for agricultural productivity to be enhanced educational status of farmers has to be enhanced as it plays a significant role in applying adaptation activities. This scenario limits the probability of undertaking climate change adaptation techniques as training is believed to be an essential input for implementing new technologies. Each focus group discussion was conducted by the researcher and an assistant who played a facilitation role. As indicated in Figure 1, it is located between 8°33'35′N–8°38′46"N latitudes and 39°10′57′E–39°30'15′E longitudes. This could be due to the fact that young farmers do not want to stick to older traditional farming systems. The result indicated that the majority of the smallholder farmers use at least one climate change adaptation strategy in their local areas though the strategy is generally weak. Separately, however, these methods did not have much impact, suggesting an integrated land management approach is needed to boost all ecosystem services. Looking at what happens with the hydrological cycles helps us understand land degradation and restoration impacts. This model is the relevant statistical model when the dependent variable is dummy in its nature. 215-228. Kothari, C.R. This has significant impact on the practices of modern climate change adaptation strategies because a minimum threshold qualification is necessary for the activities related to climate change adaptations. According to Finance and Economic Development Office of the District (FEDAD) (2014), in Adama District there are about 29 sectoral offices, 37 kebeles (smallest administrative units), 4 towns and 18 NGOs having their own mandates and responsibilities. Since 2008, the Ethiopian Strategic Investment Framework (ESIF) has supported sustainable landscape management, leading to extensive soil and water conservation, and water harvesting projects. To collect qualitative data focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field observations were also used. 52 No. In other words, the majority of the rural communities apply at least one climate change adaptation strategy in their local areas. Why is the CO2 level lower in my house than outside? The participants who participated in the questionnaire were excluded from key informant. "One of the challenges is to design research that looks at how land restoration impacts on landscapes and ecosystems influence small farmers' livelihoods. Land restoration in Latin America shows big potential for climate change mitigation, Near-atomic-scale analysis of frozen water, Characterizing the time-dependent material properties of protein condensates, Some droughts during the Indian monsoon are due to unique North Atlantic disturbances, Network isotopy: A framework to study the 3-D layouts of physical networks, Weathered microplastics found to be more easily absorbed by mouse cells than pristine microplastics. It is important to note that families with large members develop the work plan either on daily or weekly basis based on their ability to coordinate and facilitate their activities depending on the agricultural calendar. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect quantitative data using questionnaire with 351 randomly selected smallholder farmers. Recurrent extreme drought and flood in Ethiopia lead to more economic loss. FEDAD (2014), “Adama district physical and socioeconomic profile”, Unpublished Material. The results of the seasonal sta… Researchers say their work can help policymakers tailor future restoration actions to specific ecosystem needs. Finally, various experts and administrators were consulted to look into the real climate change adaptation strategies. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Land restoration in Ethiopia pays off but climate change necessitates many strategies Date: October 30, 2019 Source: International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) In line with this, a research undertaken in southern part of Ethiopia by Hurst et al. Deressa, T.T., Hassan, R.M. 3, pp. This is so mainly because cultural and social norms of the community do not equally encourage and recognize male and female household heads in physical activities. (2010). IPCC (2014b), “Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Knowing the adaptation practices and the major determinant factors will help for designing policies that can tackle major problems associated with adaptation activities to climate change. Simple random sampling technique was used because the researchers thought that the sampling frames are somewhat homogeneous. Kothari (2004) states that an application of this model is essential to identify the influence of the independent variables on the outcome variable. It is located at about 100 km southeast of the capital city of the country, Addis Ababa. ... a town in southwestern Ethiopia, on January 17, 2019. “As we’ve continued to pour more and more carbon dioxide into our atmo… This design has been used based on the nature of the research problem and the objective of this article. Hence, from the smallholder farmers of the study area, experts and observations made in the field, it can be concluded that more than few climate change adaptation strategies are being practiced by significant proportions of the farming communities in the study area. The summary of independent variables is presented in Table 1. Fussel, H. (2007), “Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons”, Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science and Springer (accessed 9 May 2007). Harper and Row Inc., New York, NY, p. 345. and Terms of Use. The country has already begun practicing adaptation strategies, but efforts are still at a relatively early stage: it is almost more appropriate to say that the attempts are fragmented and limited. This is associated to the fact that younger farmers are characterized by their flexibility in decision-making process, in seeking support and information from government and non-governmental institutions and they have higher interest in dealing with the risk as compared to older farmers. Mw7.0 Greek islands off the coast of western Turkey, Meridional Heat Transfer - Ocean and Atmosphere, Today's Climate Change and the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Thus, some questions were adopted from previously tested questionnaires by modifying them in a way that they fit the need and the context of this manuscript. The term “Adama” is said to have originated from an Oromo word “Adaamii,” the name of a tree species that was abundantly growing in the area (Figure 1). (2012) indicate that adaptation to climate change often takes place in the form of small changes. SBSTA 51/ SBI 51 took place 2-9 December 2019. Conservation agriculture, soil and stone structures, and restricting areas for grazing and agriculture have dominated restoration efforts. Kurukulasuriya, P. and Mendelsohn, R. (2008), “How will climate change shift agro-ecological zones and impact African agriculture?”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4717. This finding is in consonance with the studies of Tessema et al. The Care report links climate change to civil disasters in Sudan, Chad, the Philippines, Madagascar and Ethiopia, and says it played an exacerbating role in Haiti. The study found out that 85% of smallholder farmers were practicing diverse types of climate change adaptation strategies. According to CSA (2012), on average, one household in rural regions has about five individuals. Finally, systematic random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size households from the kebeles. © 2020, Hurgesa Hundera Hirpha, Sylvester Mpandeli and Amare Bantider. Tessema, Y.A., Aweke, C.S. On Monday, 7 October 2019, IISD Reporting Services, through its ENB+ meeting coverage, covered the African Climate Risks Conference (ACRC) 2019, which runs from 7 to 9 October 2019, from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Provided by (2013) who state that the majority of the farming communities have carried out various climate change adaptation strategies in response to climate change impacts. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no This helped using multiple data collection tools to triangulate the data obtained using different tools. This appears to be s logical to collect data pertinent to climate change and its adaptation practices from communities who lived in the area for longer period of time as they can easily provide climate related data over the past 30 years. In this case, the developing countries and the poor are the most vulnerable group. (College of Development Studies, Center for Food Security Studies. The Ethiopian economy is mainly based on the rain-fed agriculture practiced by smallholder farmers. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Future projections also often lack consistency … The result of this regression is concordant with the study of Gebrehiwot and Veen (2013), who found out that family numbers is the significant determinant of adaptation activities. ADDIS ABABA, 16 November 2015 | Climate change is threatening to exacerbate health problems in Ethiopia, the World Health Organization warns in a new Climate and Health Country Profile 2015, published today. (2004), Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, 2nd ed., New Age International (p) Limited Publisher, New Delhi. Dinar, A., Hassan, R., Mendelsohn, R. and Benhin, J. In this process, the qualitative and the quantitative data were combined in explaining, confirming, refuting and enriching the data obtained through different instruments. Hargreaves, H., Micheal, O. and Connell Roman, J. Medical Xpress covers all medical research advances and health news, Tech Xplore covers the latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, Science X Network offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. This finding is in line with Asfaw and Admassie (2004), who found out that female headed households are mostly characterized by small income sources and less likely to meet the requirement for physical activities. "If a landscape tends to increase runoff, then its ability to store water in soils and vegetation is lower," said Abera. On average, the various land restoration practices have cut soil loss by a range of 45 to 80 percent, and runoff by 38 to 90 percent, while all methods have helped improve organic carbon stocks in the soils. Questions used in these research works were tested for their validity and reliability. 4, pp. 1. 1, pp. ... 2019: Year of return for African Diaspora. (2011), “Rural farmers’ perception of climate change in central agricultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria”, Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. Similarly, Hassan and Nhemachena (2008) point out that with increasing realizations of low stage of adaptive capacity and vulnerability to climate impacts in low income countries, the need of adaptation is so urgent because it can take place at regional or local level. Furthermore, most of the studies were concentrated in Nile Basin of Ethiopia (Deressa et al., 2011; Di Falco et al., 2009) and the studies did not address explicitly adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers at the farm level as they used regional data. 13 No. Esham, M. and Garforth, C. (2013), “Agricultural adaptation to climate change: insights from a farming community in Sri Lanka”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. The sector is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The omnibus test of model coefficients has a χ2 value of 156.549 on 9 degrees of freedom, which is significant at p < 0.001 suggesting that the model has a strong explanatory power. Mannke, F. (2010), Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa, Germany. To include all important variables in data collection instruments, several research works were also reviewed (Deressa et al., 2011; Tazeze et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2013; Belay et al., 2017). As a way of ensuring the reliability and the validity of instruments, data triangulation techniques were also used in this manuscript. Do equations for groundwater flow refer to water density? Land areas are both a source and sink of carbon dioxide, but as a whole they absorb more than they release. (2013) and Tessema et al. Yemane, T. (1967), Statistics, an Introductory Analysis, 2nd ed. (2009), “Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel”. 27-48. (2011), “Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. Farber, D. (2011), “The challenge of climate change adaptation: learning from national planning efforts in Britain, China, and the USA”, Journal of Environmental Law, Oxford University Press., Vol. We’ve been on the ground fighting hunger in Ethiopia since 2004, helping families access more food, earn steady incomes, build resilience against unpredictable weather patterns and survive emergencies like the 2011 Horn of Africa hunger crisis, when drought put 13 million people in the region at risk of starvation. In this case, the smallholder farmers who practiced at least one climate change adaptation strategy in their farming were coded as 0, while those who did not practice any of the strategy were coded as 1 throughout the model. The country has already begun practicing adaptation strategies, but efforts are still at a relatively early stage: it is almost more appropriate to say that the attempts are fragmented and limited. Hurst, M. Jensen, N. Pedersen, S. Sharma, A. and Zambriski, J. Ofuoku, A.U. Gebrehiwot, T. and Veen, A. In this regard, some of the dominant climate change adaptation activities identified in the study area are using improved crop varieties, planting trees, watershed management, adjusting planting date and terracing. Following the coding system, all the valid household questions were input in a coherent format of a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 database for processing and analyzing purpose. This document is subject to copyright. To address the stated objective, the study applied a cross-sectional survey research design to guide the whole processes of this research i.e. (2009), “Assessment of climate change induced hazards, impacts and responses in Southern lowlands of Ethiopia”, FSS. Food Security Context: Complex Patterns of Climate, Climate Change, and Livelihoods. With the unavoidability of significant climate change impacts through mitigation approach (Farber, 2011), adaptation is a necessity as its effects manifest relatively almost immediately (Fussel, 2007). 4, pp. "Various land restoration practices and technologies provide various degrees of success, but they are site-specific. 3, pp. CSA (2012), “Ethiopian agricultural sample survey 2011/2012”, Volume IV, Report on land utilization, Statistical Bulletin 532. Monitoring project benefits remains insufficient, the study shows. According to Table 3, some of the respondents (36.5%) have not gone beyond Grades 1–4 level of education, whereas about 29.1% of the respondents are those who cannot write and read. (2017). Accordingly, the respondents identified different adaptation activities which include changing quantity of land under cultivation, shifting livelihood from farming to non-farming activities, diversifying crops, selling off household assets, implementing soil conservation techniques, practicing watershed management campaigns, planting trees, terracing and early planting. To enhance the smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity of climate change, concerted efforts should be made by government institutions, individual farmers, farmers’ cooperatives, non-governmental organizations and private investors. Thus, farmers with large family members have higher probability of practicing adaptation activities. 1 No. Di Falco, S., Yesuf, M. and Kohlin, G. (2009), Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Production in the Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. AMCEN (2011), “Addressing climate change challenges in Africa; a practical guide towards sustainable development”. (2010), Review of the Current Science of Climate Change Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol. Part B: regional aspects, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, New Age International (p) Limited Publisher, Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security, Environment, Development and Sustainability. May 2019 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The analysis of the binary logistic regression revealed that marital status, duration of the stay in study area and weather related information were non-significant, while the remaining independent variables were found to be statistically significant to the practices of climate change adaptation activities (Table 5). Kotir, J.H. 251-265. Land cover and vegetation in the Abbay River Basin is highly susceptible to climate change. As a result, adaptation strategies to climate change practiced by smallholder farmers and their determinant factors of the study site have not been sufficiently identified and documented. The problem is further aggravated by the existing challenges such as poverty, high unemployment, inequality, complex degradation of resources, poor dissemination of information, shortage of educated human resources, ecosystem disturbance and recurrent disasters. 23 No. Asian Journal of Empirical Research, The UNDP climate change country profiles: improving the accessibility of observed and projected climate information for studies of climate change in developing countries, American meteorological society, Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa, Climate change and agricultural production in South Africa: impacts and adaptation options, Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel, Rural farmers’ perception of climate change in central agricultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria, Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Climate change adaptation practices: a pilot study evaluating transportation agency progress, The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, Climate change adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers: the case of babilie district, east harerghe zone of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Understanding the process of adaptation to climate change by small-holder farmers: the case of East Hararghe zone, Ethiopia, Taking Action on Climate Change: Long Term Mitigation Scenarios for South Africa. 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